Modes of Prayer

(a) Farz, Sunnat and Nafl prayers
The compulsory divine services are held five time a day. Each prayer consists of three parts, namely: (1) Farz, (2) Sunnat, and (3) Nafil. Farz is a compulsory prayer directed by the Quran, Sunnat is a prayer observed by the holy Prophet (p.b.o.h.) in addition to a Farz prayer, and a Nafil is an optional prayer recommended by the Holy Prophet. Each prayer consists of two, three or four rak’ats, and each rak’at is a single unit in a prayer consisting of standing, bowing, prostration and sitting. Every component part of Rak’at will be discussed in their respective places. Except the Farz prayer, no other prayer can ordinarily be said in congregation, and prayers other than Farz may be said at the wish of the worshipper either in the Mosque or in any other convenient place.

(b) N
umber of prayers
Below are the details
of each prayer:-
(1) FAJR:
i. Two Rak’ats Sunnat.
ii. Two Rak’ats Farz.
(2) ZUHR:
i. Four Rak’ats Sunnat.
ii. Four Rak’ats Farz.
iii. Two Rak’ats Sunnat.
iv. Two Rak’ats Nafil.
(3) ASAR:
i. Four Rak’ats Sunnat.
ii. Four Rak’ats Farz.
(4) MAGRIB:
i. Three Rak’ats Farz.
ii. Two Rak’ats Sunnat.
iii. Two Rak’ats Nafil.
(5) ESHA:
i.  Four Rak’ats Sunnat.
ii. Four Rak’ats Farz.
iii.Two Rak’ats Sunnat.
iv.Two Rak’ats Nafil.
v. Three Rak’ats Witr.
vi.Two Rak’ats Nafil.

(c) Modes of prayer
After Wudzu (Ablution), one must go to praying place with proper dress and, standing in the place of prayer, he must recite in silence after facing the Holy Ka’ba.
Inni wajjahtu wajhhiya lillazi fatara ‘s-samawati wa ‘ larda hanifan wa ma ana mina’l mushrikin.
Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him Who originated the heavens and the earth, and I am not of the polytheists.(6: 80.)

Iqamat
First of all comes the Iqamat, or standing erect in readiness for prayers with the face towards the Qibla, that is towards Mecca, while thus standing the Niyat for the particular Namaz to be offered is recited.
(For Niyats, see Appendix VI)
Note: Legs must be 4 to 6 inches apart only and not more.

Takbire Tahrimah
After Iqamat, while standing erect in the same position, both hands are raised up to the ears, reciting the wordsAllah-o-Akbar.(Allah is the Greatest). This is called Takbire Tahrimah.
Note: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.

Qiyam
Then comes Qiyam. After having raised both the hands up to the ears in Takbire Tahrima, the right hand is placed upon the left a little below the navel, maintaining the same standing position. Standing thus, Sana, Sure Fatiha, followed by any other Sura, is recited. Subhanak a’l-Lahumma wa bi-Hamdika wa tabarak a’Smoka wa ta’ala Jadduka wa la ilaha ghairoka.Glory to Thee, O Allah, and Thine is the praise, and blessed is Thy name, and exalted is Thy Majesty, and there is none to be served besides Thee.
Note: Now the palm of the right hand is placed on the left, the three fingers are kept together whilst the thumb and the little finger are used to hold the other hand.
For Sura-e-Fateha and other Suras see Appendix 7.

Ruku
On completion of the Sura saying
Allah-o-Akbar (Allah is great.)
The worshipper lowers down his head in a manner that the palms of his hands rest on the knees. This is called Ruku, at which the following words, expressive of Divine Glory and Majesty, are repeated at least three times:Subhana Rabbiya ’l’Azim. Glory to my Lord the Great.
Note: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned on to his toes. He is not to bend too much down or keep raised up shoulders, but the bending posture must be such that if a glass of water is kept on his back it would not spill.

Quamah
Now saying
Sami’a ’l-Laho liman hamidah.
Allah accepts him who gives praise to Him.
The worshipper resumes the posture as in Iqamat whilst thus standing the following words are recited once:
Rabbana wa laka ’l-Hamd.
O! Our Lord, Thine is the praise.
Note 1: The worshipper MUST stand straight fully and not halfway before going into Sajdah.
Note 2: Legs must be 4 to 6 inches apart only and not more. The eyes of the worshipper are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.

Sajdah
Then saying
Allah-o-Akbar.
The worshipper prostrates himself so that the toes of both feet, both knees, both hands, forehead and the nose though the ground, and the words:
Subhana Rabbiya’l-A’la.
Glory to my Lord, the Most High. Are uttered at least three times. This is called the Sajdah, or prostration.
Note: The thumbs of the worshipper are almost in a straight line with the eyes and the fingers are all closed together and almost below the ears. The elbows must not touch the floor.

Jalsa
After finishing the Tasbihs in the Sajdah, the worshipper reciting
Allah-o-Akbar.
Resumes this sitting postures, known as Jalsa.
Note: The eyes are on the lap and the hands rest on the thighs, the fingers not falling on the knees. It is important that one must sit straight fully before resuming the second Sajdah.

B
ack view of Jalsa and Qadah
While performing Jalsa and Q’adah note that the worshipper sits on his left foot with the toes of his right foot touching the ground.

Second Sajdah
Again after saying
Allah-o-Akbar.
This is followed by a second prostration, or second Sajdah, with repetition of the same words and in the manner as described and illustrated in Photo No. 6. This completes one rak’at, and thereafter saying
Allah-o-Akbar.
The worshipper stands up for the second rak’at as in Takbire Tahrima. (See illustration No. 2.)
The second rak’at is performed in the same manner as described and illustrated for the first rak’at. (See illustration 1 to 9)
QA’DAH.
After the second Sajdah in the second rak’at the worshipper uttering
Allah-o-Akbar (Allah is Great)
While thus sitting the worshipper recites when raises his head from the ground and sits as illustrated following:-
At-Tahiyyato li ’l-l ahi wa ’s-Salawato wa ’t-Tayyibato. As-Salamo ’alayka ayyuhan’n Nabiyyu wa Rahmatu ’l-Lahi wa barakatohu. As-Salam ’alayna wa ’ala ‘ibadi ’l-Lahi’s-Salihin, ash-hado an la ilaha ila’l-Laho wa ash-hado anna Muhammadan ‘abdohu wa Rasulohu.
All prayers and worship rendered through words, actions and wealth are due to Allah. Peace be on thee, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none deserves to be worshipped but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and apostle.
The inset illustrates that while reciting
Ash-hado anna I bear witness the right hand Kalema-finger is raised and dropped back to its usual position upon reciting
La-illah ila’l laho
None deserves to be worshipped but Allah.
Note that the other fingers are folded in and are thus retained to the end.
If worshipper intends to say more than two rak’ats he stands again for the third one, but if he has to say only two rak’ats, or if he has taken the sitting posture after completing the third or the fourth rak’at, he adds to what has already foregone, the following prayers of blessing for the Holy Prophet, termed Darude Ebrahim:
Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala ali Muhammadin kama sallayta ‘ala Ibrahima wa ‘ala ali Ibrahima innaka Hamidu ’m-Majid. Allahumma barik ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala ali Muhammadin kama barakta ‘ala Ibrahima wa ‘ala ali Ibrahima innaka Hamidu ’m-Majid.
O Allah! Exalt Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad as Thou didst exalt Abraham and the followers of Abraham, for surely “Thou art Praised and Magnified. O Allah! Bless Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad, as Thou didst bless Abraham and the followers of Abraham, for surely Thou art Praised and Magnified.The following prayer may also be added:-

Allahhumma A’ghfeerli wala wa Lad’-Dayya wala Oos-taziya wala jammi’ya-l Moumnina wal Mou-manaat wal Muslami na wal Muslammaat bi’Rahamtika ya Arhammar Raahamin. O Allah! Forgive my parents and my teachers and the believing men and women and the Muslim men and women, for Thou art the Merciful.

Right Salam
At the termination of the foregoing prayer, the worshipper utters

As-Salamo ‘alakum wa Rahmatu ‘l-Lah
Peace be with you and the Mercy of Allah turning his head first to the right.
Note: That the eyes of the worshipper are focused on to his shoulders.
Left Salt Salam
As-Salamo ‘alakum wa Rahmatu ‘l-Lah
Peace be with you and the Mercy of Allah
the worshipper turns his head to the left.
Note: That the eyes of the worshipper are focused on to his shoulders.

Dua-Fatiha
Now both hands are raised for Duah or Fatiha at the termination of which the prayer comes to a close.
Note: The hands of the worshipper are not higher than his chest and not more than 6 inches away from the chest. Also the eyes must be pinned on to the palms of the hands. Both hands must be together as illustrated.
To perform Namaaz in the sitting position here are some of the differences from that of the standing posture.

Takbire-Tahrima
Reciting the words
Allah-o-Akbar. (Allah is Great)
both hands are raised to the ears.
Note: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned on the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.

Qiyam
After raising both hands to the ears, the right hand is placed upon the left, below the navel, Sana, Sura Fatiha (See Append. 7) plus another Sura are now recited.
Note: How the palm of the right hand is placed on the left, the three fingers are kept together whilst the thumb and the little finger are used to hold the other hand.

R
uku
Upon completion of the Sura, saying “Allah-o-Akbar” the worshipper lowers down his head and recites
Subhana Rabbiya ’l’Azim. (Glory to my Lord the Great.)
Three times.
Note: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.
RUKU (Back View). This is the same Ruku position (see photo No. 16) showing how the legs ought to be when performing this posture.Note: The buttocks must not be raised from the legs.

Quamah
On saying
Sami’a ’l-Laho liman hamidah.
Allah accepts him who gives praise to Him.
The head is raised and the worshipper sits upright , taking the position of sitting Quamah, leaving both his hands to remain on the thighs.
Note: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned in the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah. The succeeding postures are to be performed as illustrated and explained in photos 6 to 13.

W
omen's section
Women have to offer Namaaz in the same manner as men, except for what is illustrated herein.

T
akbire Tahrima
After Iqamat (see illustration No.1 of men’s section page 40) saying Allah-o-Akbar, both hands are raised up to the shoulders only.
Note: The eyes are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.

Qiyam
In Qiyam, the hands are placed on the breast. Standing thus, Sana, Sura Fateha plus another Sura are recited.
Take particular note of the inset, which illustrated how the right hand is placed on the left, holding the fingers and the thumb together on the back of the palm and the eyes pinned on to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.

Ruku
On completion of the Sura, saying Allah-o-Akbar (Allah is the Greatest), bending a little so that the hands touch the knees, would suffice to complete the Ruku. Whilst thus prostrating, the following words, expressive of Divine Glory and Majesty, are repeated three times:
Subhana Rabbiya ’l-‘Azim.
Glory to my Lord the Great.
Note: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned on to her toes.
Now saying
Sami’a ‘l-Laho liman hamidah
Allah accepts him who gives praise to Him.
The worshipper resumes the posture as illustrated in Photo No. 1 of the men’s section known as the Iqamat.
Whilst thus standing the words
Rabbana laka ’l-Hamd
O! Our Lord, Thine is the praise is recited once.
Note: The worshipper must stand up erect fully and not halfway before going down into Sajdh. The eyes of the worshipper are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.

Sajdah
The worshipper prostrates herself so that the legs, both knees, both forearms, breast, forehead, and the nose touch the ground, and the following words are repeated three times:-

Subhana Rabbiya ’l-A’la.
Glory to my Lords the Most High.
Back view of Sajdah
For the guidance of women, here is an exposition of the Sajdah, showing how the legs and the correct position ought to be.

Back view of Jlsa and Q'adah
Note: The worshipper sits on the floor with the left leg folded to convenience and the right leg exposed, as illustrated.
The front view of Jalsa is similar to that of Q’adah as illustrated in Photo No. 7, page 71 (with the exception of the inset).

Q’adah
After finishing the tasbih in the Sajdah, the worshipper reciting Alla-o-Akbar, resumes this sitting position.
Note: That the worshipper sits on the floor with the left leg folded to convenience. Note further that the hands rest on the thighs and the fingers should not fall on the knees, and that the eyes should be on the lap.
The inset refers to what has foregone on pages 52/53
The succeeding portion of the prayer is to be performed as explained in the men’s section.
To perform Namaaz in the sitting position, here are some of the main features for the guidance of women:-

TakbireTahrima
Reciting Allaho-Akbar, the worshipper raises both hands to the shoulder level.
Note: The eyes are pinned on the spot where the forehead is to rest in Sajdah.

Qiyam
In Qiyam the hands are placed on the breast, and Sana, Sura Fathia (see Appen. 7) plus another Sura is recited. Take particular note of the inset, which illustrates how the right hand is placed on the left, holding the fingers and the thumb together on the back of the palm.
Note: The eyes are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah.Reciting Allah-o-Akbar, the worshipper bows her head, placing both the hands on the knees. Whilst resuming this posture Is recited three times, after which reciting
Sami’a ‘ l-Laho liman hamidh
Allah accepts him who gives praise to Him
The worshipper sits straight, performing the Quamah and the words
Rabbana laka ’l-Hamd
O! Our Lord, Thine is the praise
Are read once. The remaining part of the prayer is to be performed in exactly the same manner as illustrated and explained in photos already given.

(D) Is a departure from these posturespermissable ?
It may be added here that the four positions, “Qiyam,” “Ruku,” “Sajda” and “Qa’da,” are all the possible positions which a man can assume to show reverence and, so far as the physical position of the worshipper is concerned, the form adopted is the most perfect possible and leaves nothing to be desired. The different postures, even if unaccompanied by any prayers to or praise of the Divine Being with the silent contemplation of the Divine Presence, are sufficient to inspire the heart of the worshipper with true awe of the Divine Being and to bring before his mind a picture of the Great Majesty and Glory of God, as he stands up, then bows, then places his forehead on the ground. The law allows certain modification in circumstances such as when a person is sick he may say his prayers in a sitting position, or if unable to sit down he may say them while lying down, dispensing with even the “Ru’ku” and the “Sajda” if necessary. So, on a journey, a man is allowed to say his prayers while riding a horse or a camel, and though this is expressly allowed only in the case of voluntary prayers, the obligatory of Farz prayer in a railway carriage or on a boat, would follow the same rule, and the posture adopted in all such.

 
   

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